Companies trading in heating oil, natural gas, petrol and diesel will have to pay the price of CO2 as of 2021. They will be required to acquire pollution rights in the form of emissions certificates for the greenhouse gas emissions caused by their products. This is to be translated into practice by the new national emissions trading scheme.
The bill now adopted by the Cabinet specifies how the national emissions trading scheme is to be organised. The measure is part of the German government’s Climate Action Programme 2030.
Incentives for climate action
To date there has been no effective price mechanism that would illustrate the intensity of CO2 emissions caused by fossil fuels in the heating and transport sectors. These sectors are not covered by the European emissions trading system.
The new CO2 pricing mechanism is intended to make climate-damaging heating and driving more expensive. It is intended to provide an incentive to switch to climate-appropriate technologies like heat pumps and electric mobility, as well as saving more energy and using renewables.
Giving businesses and people a certain basis on which to plan
As of 2021 the price will be fixed for a period of five years. It will start at a level of 10 euros per tonne of CO2, and will rise to 35 euros a tonne in2025. The German government intends to start the scheme at a moderate level to avoid placing excessively high financial burdens on people or businesses. This scheme enables them to respond to price trends in the medium term, purchase climate-appropriate products or invest in pertinent systems. A reliable price development gives them the greatest possible certainty on which to plan.
The German government categorically rejects placing a dual burden on industrial plants, which are already part of the European emissions trading system. The bill provides for compensation and other measures to relieve burdens on affected companies.
Limited number of certificates
After a five-year introductory phase, the pollutions rights must be bought at auction as of 2026. The total number of CO2 emissions certificates will be limited to achieve climate targets. The market will then set the price, in line with the law of demand and supply, but the price should be at least 35 euros a tonne and no more than 60 euros a tonne CO2 emitted.
Relieving the burden on individuals
The German government will invest the additional income generated by CO2 pricing in measures under the Climate Action Programme – in climate-friendly transport and energy-efficient buildings for instance. Part of the revenue will also be passed back to individuals to compensate for the higher costs they face.